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New Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: 
An Update

Ahmed Adlan, MRCP, and Gregory YH Lip, MD

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Stroke and thromboembolism occur more frequently in patients with AF and cause substantial morbidity and mortality [1–3]. AF-related strokes are associated with worse disability and longer hospital stays, and an increased mortality rate, compared with strokes that are attributable to other causes [4–7]. Hence, prevention of stroke is vital in the management of patients with AF. Current guidelines recommend oral anticoagulation therapy in patients who are identified as being at moderate-to-high risk of stroke [8,9].

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