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Chlebowski RT, Schwartz AG, Wakelee H et al.; the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators.

Harbour–UCLA Medical Center, Torrence, CA, USA.

 Lancet 2009;374:1243–51.

Editor’s note: The WHI (Women’s Health Initiative) trial was a large, randomized, placebo-controlled study that was conducted to investigate the effects of hormone replacement therapy on the health of post-menopausal women in terms of the incidence and mortality rates of diverse cancer types (breast, colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian tumors), cardiovascular diseases, and hip fractures (JAMA 2002;288:321–33). The study was prematurely stopped owing to an increase in the incidence of diverse diseases, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and breast cancer.

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