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Eur Urol 2011;59:671–81.
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Editor’s note: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22-nucleotide-long, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs. First described in plants, these RNA types were subsequently found in vertebrates over a decade ago. Since this time, there has been an exponential increase in the number of miRNA-related publications (reviewed in Nat Rev Urol 2010;7:286–97), fuelled by the recognition that these molecules play, amongst others, a pivotal role in the development and progression of cancer. There is now a wealth of literature associating miRNAs with renal cancer, and it is evident that those with an interest in the biology of these tumors should be familiar with these data. It is perhaps timely, therefore, that two recent reviews have been published that summarize the current state of our knowledge.