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Diagnosis

Immune parameters that distinguish multiple sclerosis patients from patients with other neurological disorders at presentation.

Mouzaki A, Rodi M, Dimisianos N et al.

University of Patras, Patras, Greece.

 PLoS One 2015;10:e0135434.

Cris Constantinescu’s review: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, immune system-mediated, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The pathophysiology of MS is partly reflected by alterations in immune system parameters in the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, similar alterations can be found in other neurological diseases with a primary or secondary inflammatory component. Thus, there is a need for a biomarker or combination of biomarkers that can distinguish MS from other conditions. This is most important early in the disease process (at or close to presentation) when the degree of diagnostic uncertainty is highest.

In this study, Mouzaki and colleagues performed a comprehensive measurement of multiple immunity parameters, including cytokines and immunoglobulins, in the serum and CSF of patients with MS who were diagnosed soon after presentation as well as those with inflammatory neurological disease (IND), non-IND (NIND), and symptomatic non-MS controls. They grouped the measured cytokines according to their T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, or Th17 lineages, which allowed them to calculate Th ratios. The measurements were made using cytometric bead arrays for all of the cytokines except for transforming growth factor-β, levels of which were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

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