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The Late Medical Complications of Severe Acquired Brain Injury in Children – Literature Review and Personal Practice. Part II: Non-Neurological Complications

Serena Haywood, MBBS, BSc, MRCP (Paed), MRCPCH, MSc1, Assunta Albanese, MD, FRCPCH, MPhil2, Ravi Chetan, MBBS, DCH, MRCP (Paed), MRCPCH2, Sonny Chong, FRCP (UK), FRCPCH, M. Med (Paed), MD3, and Paramala Santosh, MD, DipNB (Psych), FRCPsych, PhD4

The exact number of children with acquired brain injuries (ABIs) is not known, but it seems likely that this number is increasing, and children with more severe injuries (an initial Glasgow Coma Score of <8) are surviving years after their injury. Brain injuries can result in long-term neurodisability with a number of associated medical complications. Children may have simultaneously presenting clinical signs that are difficult to interpret, and those with severe brain injuries have more medical complications than those with mild-to-moderate injuries. As the natural history of the medical complexities of brain injuries is not entirely understood, it can be difficult to plan medical management of patients with the condition. Thus, this group of patients poses an increasingly complex challenge to families, clinicians, and healthcare providers.

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