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Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Drugs for Diabetic Retinopathy


Raimondo Forte, MD, PhD1,2, Giuseppe Querques, MD, PhD1, Gilda Cennamo, MD, PhD2, Paola Bonavolontà, MD2, Arduino Pascotto, MD3, and Eric H Souied, MD, PhD1

Diabetic retinopathy is the third major cause of blindness in Western, developed countries after age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma [1]. Although proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the cause of most severe vision loss, diabetic macular edema (DME) is more prevalent and is the leading cause of moderate vision loss in patients with diabetic retinopathy [2,3]. For patients presenting with DME for the first time, macular laser grid photocoagulation is currently the standard treatment [2]. The ETDRS (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study) demonstrated that this reduces moderate visual loss in eyes with clinically significant macular edema (CSME) [3]. However, particularly in chronic diffuse macular edema, macular laser grid photocoagulation is not always beneficial [4–6].

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