With over 280 million people suffering from diabetes mellitus, it is globally one of the most common non-communicable diseases [1,2]. The increasing prevalence of both types of diabetes [3,4], especially in low-income countries, poses a challenge to healthcare and to society at large. Diabetes is associated with microangiopathy, such as retinopathy, nephro-pathy, and peripheral (poly)neuropathy, as well as macroangiopathy. More recently, awareness has been increasing that diabetes also affects the brain . Although this was recognized in the early 1920s , and further studied in post mortem research in the 1960s [7,8], in the past decade, with advances in neuroimaging techniques, this research field has been growing. Patients with diabetes show cognitive decrements in a wide range of functions, such as working memory, information processing speed, and executive functions, including mental flexibility and verbal fluency [9–11]. In addition, changes compared with control subjects have been observed in brain structure, cerebral activity, and neuronal communication [12–19]. In both types of diabetes, microangiopathy seems to be the most prominent predictor of cerebral changes over time [20,21].