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Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia-related lower urinary tract symptoms

Konstantinos Giannitsas, MD, PhD, and Petros Perimenis, MD, PhD


Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are prevalent in men [1]. They are conventionally believed to be etiologically related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which results in prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction, known as benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). Prostate enlargement causes mechanical obstruction to bladder emptying, while increased smooth muscle tone in the prostate also causes BPO via dynamic obstruction. The important contribution of bladder dysfunction to the pathophysiology of LUTS – especially to that of urinary frequency, urgency, and nocturia – is being increasingly recognized [2].

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