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Treatment Strategies for Children with First-Time Urinary Tract Infections: an Evaluation of the AAP, ESPU/EAU, NICE, and AUA Guidelines

Miriam Harel, MD1,2, Fernando A Ferrer Jr, MD1,2, and John H Makari, MD1,2

The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children aged 2 months to 2 years is approximately 1.5–5%. In circumcised boys, it is 0.2–0.4%, and the prevalence is up to 20 times higher in uncircumcised boys. In girls, the prevalence is approximately 6.5–8% when no other source of fever is present [1]. Infants and young children are of particular concern, because the risk of renal injury secondary to UTI is highest in this age group [2]. Diagnosis can be challenging in infants and young children, as symptoms are often nonspecific, and urine samples can be difficult to obtain.

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Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia-related lower urinary tract symptoms
Konstantinos Giannitsas, MD, PhD, and Petros Perimenis, MD, PhD

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