Perez TE, Grubb TL, Greene SA et al.
Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242:631–42.
Marieke de Vries’s review: The application of multimodal analgesia is known to improve analgesic conditions compared with the administration of systemic analgesics alone. It has been demonstrated that local and regional administration of local anaesthetic agents in humans and other species undergoing castration and other types of testicular surgery provides moderate to high levels of analgesia. Other advantages of these multimodal techniques are a reduced incidence of stress-induced complications such as cardiac arrhythmias and ischaemia, and the ability to maintain a lighter plane of anaesthesia, resulting in faster recoveries. In this study, the analgesic effects of either bupivacaine injected intratesticularly or morphine injected epidurally prior to castration were studied in dogs.