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Robat C, Burton J, Thamm D et al.

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

 J Small Anim Pract 2013;54:67–74.

Patricia Ibarrola’s review: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common neoplasm of the lower urinary tract in dogs. Complete surgical excision is difficult and generally only attempted when the tumour is in the apex of the bladder. In addition, metastases are sometimes present at the time of diagnosis or can occur during treatment. Medical therapy for TCC of the lower urinary tract, including cytotoxic drugs, cyclooxygenase inhibitors, and combinations of the two drug classes, has been evaluated in dogs. Piroxicam monotherapy has been used in the treatment of TCC and seems to improve clinical signs in many cases. The combination of cisplatin and piroxicam yields the highest response rates reported but is associated with significant nephrotoxicity and is no longer recommended (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;231:1056–60). A combination of mitoxantrone and piroxicam results in a remission rate of 35%, with minimal toxicity and a median survival time of 291 days (Clin Cancer Res 2003;9:906–11). This is currently considered to be the preferred chemotherapy treatment for TCC.

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