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Disease Manifestations

Luo YF, Robbins IM, Karatas M et al. Chest 2011;140:42–7.

Pleural effusions are common in patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with connective tissue diseases, and are frequently associated with right-sided heart failure.


Pleural effusions, often asymptomatic, are a frequent finding in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD), and are commonly assumed to be secondary to left-sided heart failure. Such effusions can also be seen in patients with predominantly right-sided heart failure, although the extent to which this occurs has been unclear.

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