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Invasive Zygomycosis Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Morena Caira, MD, Mario Mancinelli, Giuseppe Leone, MD, and Livio Pagano, MD

Zygomycosis is a frequently lethal invasive fungal infection (IFI) caused by various members of the orders Mucorales and Entomophthorales. Although Entomophthorales spp.are occasionally reported to cause superficial infections, Mucorales fungi may cause severe forms of infections, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. In various hematological series, Mucorales spp. have been reported to represent the third most common cause of IFI, after Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp. [1,2]. Patients with acute leukemia and those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantion (HSCT) are the most frequently affected [1–11]. Despite a general improvement in the prevention and treatment of other fungal complications in patients with hematological malignancies, as reported over the last few years, the incidence of invasive zygomycosis (IZ) appears to be increasing, and related mortality rates remain high [7].

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